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Neurology & Neurophysiology

Dr Ho Choong  is our experienced specialist Neurologist and Neurophysiologist. Dr Choong is able to diagnose and treat conditions and diseases of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems.  These conditions include:

  • Neuromuscular disorders
    (Myasthenia Gravis, Multiple Sclerosis, Myopathy, Muscular dystrophy)
  • Stroke
  • Seizure disorders (Epilepsy)
  • Infections of the nervous system (Menangistis, Encephalitis or brain abscesses)
  • Spinal cord disorders
  • Headaches (Migraine)
  • Brain Injuries

Neuromuscular disorders

The neuromuscular system is a combination of the nervous system and muscles, working together to permit movement. Neuromuscular disorders are those that affect the the nerves that control your voluntary muscles and/or their direct nervous system control. Problems with central nervous control can cause either spasticity or some degree of paralysis, depending on the location and the nature of the problem.

Symptons include:

  • Numbness
  • Paresthesia (burning or prickling sensation)
  • Muscle weakness
  • Muscle spasticity (movement issues and stiffness)
  • Muscle atrophy (muscle loss)
  • Muscle pain
  • Muscle twitches
  • Breathing or swallowing difficulties

Diagnosis and treatment 

Depending on the condition, Dr Choong will use a range of tests, including electrical tests known as nerve conduction studies NCS (measures how fast an electrical impulse moves through your nerve to identify nerve damage), electromyography (EMG) to determine the health of the muscles and to evaluate and record the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles.  EMG results can reveal nerve dysfunction, muscle dysfunction or problems with nerve to muscle signal transmission.

Treatment varies widely, according to the individual disorder, and some conditions are more easily treated than others.


Worldwide, stroke is the second most common cause of death. Strokes are much more common among older people than among younger adults, usually because the disorders that lead to strokes progress over time.  A stroke occurs when an artery to the brain becomes blocked or ruptures, resulting in death of an area of brain tissue due to loss of its blood supply (cerebral infarction) and causing sudden symptoms. Controlling high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, and high blood sugar levels and not smoking helps prevent strokes.

Some risk factors for stroke can be controlled or modified to some extent. These risk factors are:

  • High cholesterol levels
  • High blood pressure
  • Diabetes and Insulin resistance (an inadequate response to insulin)
  • Smoking
  • Obesity and an unhealthy diet (such as one that is high in saturated fats, trans fats, and calories)
  • Too much alcohol
  • Lack of physical activity
  • Depression or other mental stresses
  • Heart disorders that increase the risk of blood clots
  • Infective endocarditis (infection of the heart’s lining and usually of the heart valves)
  • Use of cocaine or amphetamines
  • Inflammation of blood vessels (vasculitis)

Symptons include:

  • muscle weakness
  • paralysis
  • abnormal or lost sensation on one side of the body
  • difficulty speaking
  • problems with vision
  • dizziness, loss of balance and coordination,
  • sudden, severe headache

Diagnosis and treatment 

Diagnosis is based mainly on symptoms, but imaging and blood tests are also done. Recovery after a stroke depends on many factors, such as the location and amount of damage, the person’s age, and the presence of other disorders.

Dr Choong will perform and interpret tests of the brain or nervous system and may recommend medications to make blood less likely to clot or to break up clots, or if needed will recommend surgical treatment or angioplasty.